IELRC.ORG - Biosafety
Publication categories

 Working papers
 Other contributions

Related Subjects

 Intellectual Property

Related Events

Conference organised by IELRC on liability / biosafety

COP/MOP1 side events

Workshop organised by IELRC on liability and redress under the Cartagena Protocol
Liability & Redress under Cartagena Protocol


The development of genetic engineering (biotechnology) poses a number of challenges from the point of view of environmental protection. In particular, there remain significant uncertainties concerning the long-term environmental and other impacts of the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment. These concerns are encapsulated under the concept of biosafety which has recently become one of the hotly debated issues at the national and international levels in most countries of the world. While plant safety concerns have been present in international law for a long time as exemplified by the 1951 International Plant Protection Convention, the development of biotechnology has led to renewed interest in this field and in particular to the adoption of the 2000 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity which is today the central instrument in the field of biosafety.

Selected Academic Publications on Biosafety

Liability and Redress for Modern Biotechnology
15 Yearbook of International Environmental Law (2006), p. 165

full text   205 [KB]

Agricultural Genetic Engineering, International Law and Development
46/3 Indian Journal of International Law 388 (2006)

full text   83 [KB]

Monsanto v Schmeiser: A Landmark Decision concerning Farmer Liability and Transgenic Contamination
17 Journal of Environmental Law (2005), p. 83

full text   170 [KB]

Towards a Liability and Redress System under the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: A Review of the Kenya National Legal System
1 East African Law Journal (2004), p. 119

full text   430 [KB]

Liability and GMOs: Towards a Redress Regime in Biosafety Protocol
39/7 Economic & Political Weekly (2004), p. 615

full text   108 [KB]

Responsabilite et biotechnologie
Mark Hunyadi ed., Les usages de la precaution (Geneve: Droz, 2004)

full text   91 [KB]

The Development of Biosafety Regulation in Africa in the Context of the Cartagena Protocol - Legal and Administrative Issues
11/1 Review of European Community and International Environmental Law (2002), p. 62

full text   148 [KB]

Working Papers on Biosafety

Regulation of GMO Crops and Foods: Kenya Case Study

full text    190 [KB]

Liability and Redress in Biotechnology: Towards the Development of Rules at the National and International Levels

full text    297 [KB]

La responsabilite et le Protocole sur la biosecurite

full text    323 [KB]

Other Contributions on Biosafety


Farmer Liability and GM Contamination: The Schmeiser Judgment (2004)


Monsanto vs Schmeiser: Lessons from Canada (2004)


The Biosafety Protocol: an Introduction (2002)


Agro-biotechnology: Can it Deliver? (2000)